Course Descriptions/Outlines

The  2018-19 Graduate Program in Health course timetable (.pdf) is available (Posted on 13 September 2018).  It remains subject to change. The Office of Registrar also maintains a course schedule database for all York courses. Registration and course enrollment commencement dates/deadlines are listed on the Faculty of Graduate Studies Important Dates page.

Core Courses for the Graduate Program in Health

The core courses are intended to ensure that students have a common basis understanding of the different aspects of health studies.

(Note: Not all of these courses are offered in every academic year).

HLTH 5010 3.0 Health and Science  (Core Course)
Health and Science considers how science contributes to various aspects of human health.  Studies in a number of areas of science, but primarily life sciences, have had huge impacts on the human condition.  This course will explore the nature of certain advancements in human health and provide students with an in-depth understanding of key areas of research.  The biomedical research paradigm will explore various advancements in our understanding of human biology including, but not limited to, studies on stem cells (what is consciousness, how should we treat neurological diseases), common molecular, cellular, physiological and behavioural mechanisms that underlie many diseases.  Health and Environment will explore the importance of a healthy environment in determining human health (i.e. a cure for cancer isn’t much good if we don’t have a planet to live on).  The behavioural health research paradigm will explore various bio-psychosocial determinants of health and the relationship between behaviour and biology.

HLTH 5020 3.0 Health and Economics (Core Course)
Economic analysis deals with both inputs and outputs, or costs and consequences, in a world where resources – people, time, facilities, equipment and knowledge – are scarce.  Economic analysis therefore concerns itself with choices, since our ability to produce all desired output (efficacious therapies) is constrained.  These choices are made on the basis of explicit and implicit criteria.  Economic analysis seeks to identify criteria that may be useful in deciding among alternative uses of scarce resources.

HLTH 5030 3.0 Health and Politics (Core Course)
Health and Politics considers how politics – the social relations that involve authority or power -- influence the domain of health studies.  Three key areas are considered.  Paradigms of Health examines the various ways that health issues are defined and activities related to such definitions are implemented. The Determinants Of Population Health consider how political decisions by governments and other policymakers shape the patterns of health and disease within a society.   The Organization and Delivery of Health Care examines how health care systems are shaped by dominant political ideologies and the economic and social forces that influence policy decisions.

  • Download the course outline for HLTH 5030 3.0 F18 (.pdf) (Posted on August 29, 2018 ).

HLTH 5040 3.0 Health, Law and Ethics (Core Course)
This course explores the relationship between health, ethics and the law. It focuses on the following key areas of study: bioethical principles and approaches, selected case and statute law and health-related issues which illustrate the intersection between legal and ethical analysis. These issues have implications for both individual and public policy decision-making. All of them impact on the social, political and economic institutions which support the health care system.  Ethical theory and medical practice will be scrutinized with a focus on the following key areas: foundations of healthcare ethics and practice, concepts of illness and disease, medical decision-making, resource allocation, autonomy, paternalism and justice. There has been a number of challenges to the assumption that everyone is treated the same in our current health care system. Consequently, equity-based, feminist, social constructionist and disability rights perspectives will inform the legal and ethical analyses. These perspectives reveal complex interconnections with other power systems that can have a negative influence on equitable access to health care, such as race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, class, age and disability. An interdisciplinary approach that employs these perspectives will expand our understanding of the determinants of health in ways that exclusive reliance on a biomedical perspective will not. It can also enable us to address key questions about developing and accessing responsive health care systems.

  • Download the course outline for HLTH 5040 3.0_ F18(.pdf) (Posted on September 6, 2018 ).

HLTH 5050 3.0 Perspectives in Decision Making and Information Systems (Core Course)
One of the major aims of Decision Making and Information Systems is to help health professionals understand the decision making aspects (rational and non-rational) in health care. This course reviews decision making theories and information systems used for supporting decision making in health care, the opportunities they offer and the challenges they face.

HLTH 5405 3.0 Research Methods Seminar (Core Course)
This is an advanced course in research methodology.  Particular emphasis will be placed on research design (experimental, quasi-experimental), methods, and paradigms of understanding that incorporates the philosophical orientations of positivism, constructivism and critical social science.  The implications of such understandings for carrying out and assessing research in the social sciences including public policy, management and informatics will be examined and the appropriate methods for each paradigm presented and applied.

Field Specific Courses in the field of Health Policy & Equity

All MA and PhD students take a minimum of two out of three of the following field specific courses. These courses prepare students for their comprehensive paper.

(Note: Not all of these courses are offered in every academic year).

HLTH 6210 3.0 Political Economy of Health Inequities (Field Specific Course)
The Political Economy of Health Inequities examines how health inequities result from public policy decisions that skew the distribution of economic and social resources among the population. These public policies are shaped by the form that the economic and political systems take in modern capitalist economies such as Canada.  Canada is firmly entrenched in the “liberal” political economy camp which is associated with minimal government intervention in the operation of the marketplace.  The forces that could challenge marketplace domination of societal distribution of resources are examined as a means of moving towards more equitable distribution of resources and power, thereby reducing health inequities and improving population health.

HLTH 6220 3.0 Human Rights and Health Equity (Field Specific Course)
The intersection between human rights and disability is an area of health that is expanding as globalization progresses.  The purpose of this course is to view health in a human rights context from both domestic and international perspectives.  It begins with an exploratory look at the basic concepts of human rights and social justice in the global setting. It will then cover the following topics:

  • institutional mechanisms for connecting health and human rights
  • health as an equity issue
  • globalization and health
  • health, human rights and law
  • health and disability
  • reproductive technology
  • Gender and health equity

The course incorporates the work of High Commissioner on Human Rights in health, the UN Special Rapporteur on Health and World Health Organization and raises concerns related to both developed and developing economies.  The course will survey the relationships between human rights law and health law, as well as between law and the actual practice.

HLTH 6230 3.0 Health Equity Analytic Orientations (Field Specific Course)
Exposes students to and grounds them in a comprehensive range of analytic orientations drawn from political science including public choice, class structure, neo-institutionalism, political economy and political philosophy, to guide their approach to policy analysis as it pertains to health equity issues.  Different analytic lenses used to study political behavior and public policy will be addressed and compared.  These will allow students to develop a rich and in-depth foundation in public administration and public policy analysis that they can apply to studying health equity issues.   The course draws on various theoretical and analytic orientations to study the development of contemporary Canadian and international health policy.  Most sub-areas studied will involve two sessions.  In the first, the instructor will lead the presentation of the theoretical concept.  In the second, a student will lead a discussion that applies that concept to the health policy field as it pertains to health equity.  The latter half of the second term will involve an exploration of “path analysis” in comparing health policy & equity issues across international contexts.  We also discuss research methods, including comparative, interview, and survey-based research approaches.  The course thus supports students in determining the analytic orientation they will adopt in their dissertation research.  The final paper will indeed involve students’ application of an analytic approach to a health equity issue concerning public policy.

Elective Courses for the Graduate Program in Health

In addition to the core courses listed above, students are expected to take elective courses offered by the program. One elective course in a cognate area may be allowed with permission of the Graduate Program Director.

(Note: Not all of these courses are offered in every academic year).

HLTH 5410 3.0 Survey Design in Healthcare (Elective Course)
This course examines various aspects of survey design and survey data collection that are relevant in different health related environments.  The course focuses on both questionnaire design and implementation issues, with a focus on achieving strong response through good design and procedures.  Issues of validity and reliability of measurement are explored to the extent that they are important in survey design and measurement.  Procedures and challenges associated with actual survey implementation and data collection are explored.  Timely issues and challenges arising out of the confluence of research ethics and new privacy legislation along with other issues are also explored.

HLTH 5415 3.0 Drugs and Decisions: Decision Making and Pharmaceutical Policy (Elective Course)
As Canada continues to spend an ever increasing percent of the health care budget on prescription drugs, it becomes more and more important to understand decision making in the pharmaceutical policy arena. This course will take a political science approach to exploring the interplay between private and public interests in making decisions around topics such as the research agenda, how drugs are priced and the system for approving new drugs and monitoring the safety and effectiveness of those on the market.

HLTH 5420 3.0 Measuring and Improving Quality and Safety in Healthcare (Elective Course)
This course addresses both the measurement and improvement of quality and patient safety in healthcare organizations.  Students will learn the principles and processes of quality improvement (QI) and patient safety including QI theory and tools, the importance of system level factors in understanding patient safety failure, and the role that measurement, leadership, culture, and inter-professional teams play in QI and safety.  The principles and practices of quality management will be critically assessed including consideration of current methods used to measure and track quality and safety, the state of empirical support for process improvement techniques, and data quality challenges that are central to the measurement of patient outcome in healthcare. Legal and regulatory issues in healthcare quality and safety will also be explored.

HLTH 5425 3.0 Managing E-Health (Elective Course)
The objective is to provide the health and industry sectors with people skilled to understand the design, selection, procurement, installation, management, maintenance, and evaluation of telemedicine and eHealth systems appropriate to present and future needs.
More specific, the course objectives are:

  1. to critically evaluate the role of current and emerging telemedicine and eHealth technology;
  2. to critically appraise relevant information and communication technologies and network technology from a system level perspective;
  3. to critically investigate the legal, regulatory, ethical and clinical aspects of telemedicine and eHealth.

HLTH 5430 3.0 Evaluation in Research (Elective Course)
Evaluation differs from research in that it involves making practical decisions about real-life policies, programs, and practices. This course focuses on the theory and practice of evaluation as it applies to policy and equity studies in health. It considers both the similarities as well as differences of evaluation with research and reviews various paradigms and methodologies associated with the evaluation of policies in support of equity.

HLTH 5440 3.0 Globalization, Pharmaceuticals  & Health Equity (Elective Course)
Globalization in the pharmaceutical area has sparked debate about a series of issues that impact on health equity. These issues centre around two central themes: access to pharmaceuticals and ethics.  The move towards a single standard for intellectual property rights world-wide has lead to significant problems in accessing pharmaceuticals in developing countries due to the lack of generic products which generate price competition. At the same time, drug companies have been unwilling to undertake research into problems largely specific to developing countries because of a lack of a market for any resulting medications. The first part of the course will explore the history of intellectual property rights (IPRs) and how and why the industry and its political supporters have been successful in strengthening IPRs. The course will then look at new initiatives to stimulate R&D in neglected diseases]. The recent effort to revise the Declaration of Helsinki and the CIOMS Guidelines on research involving human subjects are but some of the ethical controversies about how to conduct biomedical research with human subjects in developing countries. These controversies subsume the following issues: culturally appropriate practices of informed consent and subject recruitment, post-trial therapeutic commitments, models for research ethics review and questions about who should control the review process. This part of the course will address the need to conceive of and then relate ethical research practices to the different socio-cultural contexts in which they will be pursued.

HLTH 5450 3.0 Health Equity & Mental Health Policy (Elective Course)
Involves an analysis of mental health policy from a political perspective, starting with early conceptualizations and approaches to mental health care in the 20th century.  It will then explore more recent societal approaches, government initiatives and legislation in the Canadian context and draw on examples in other international contexts.  Topics to be explored include: history of psychiatric care, definitions of mental health and mental illness, the meaning of therapy, legislation concerning community treatment orders and involuntary treatment, deinstitutionalization and the shift to community care, “trans-institutionalization,” mental health policy development, competence in an emergency situation, consent to treatment issues, representation issues and the interests of clients and family members, and mental health policy in international jurisdictions.

HLTH 5455 3.0 Health Equity Human Resources – Working in Care (Elective Course)
Almost one in five Canadians have paid work in health and social services and at least an equivalent number provide unpaid care. As this labour force ages and as conditions made work in care less attractive, there is growing concern about whether there will be enough doctors and nurses to provide the care we need. At the same time, more and more care work is being relocated to the household and to unpaid, often untrained providers. Moreover, infections such as SARS have made the contributions of the non-professional staff increasingly visible, especially as more of the care work is done by non-clinical providers. These processes are profoundly gendered, with women providing over 80 per cent of the paid care and an equivalent amount of the unpaid personal care. Racialization also plays a significant role, as do factors linked to other social locations. This course will explore the conceptualization, nature, conditions and relations of care work along with planning for care, paying particular attention to multiple social locations and structural forces.

HLTH 5460 3.0 Ideological Conflicts in Health Care: Money Versus Care, Profit Versus the Public Good (Elective Course)
The shape that a health care system takes is a reflection of various forces. One of the most defining characteristics of a system is the degree to which it is an expression of individual free enterprise versus social cohesion. These distinctions are driven by the dominant ideology of the country as expressed through its government, the union movement and the strength of private enterprise. These ideological distinctions can be expressed in features of a system such as private versus public insurance for health care, for-profit versus not-for-profit delivery of health care services, whether selling organs is allowed and the uptake of public-private initiatives. This course will use a political science model to examine these and other ideological divisions in health care both in Canada and internationally. Students will be exposed to a range of literature that looks at both sides of these issues both from a theoretical and a practical, case based point-of-view.

HLTH 5465 3.0 Women and Health (Elective Course)
Women are not only the majority of the population; they are also the majority of those who need and provide care. While there are significant differences among women in terms of their health, there are also important similarities that result not only from their bodies but also from the ways those bodies are shaped by and interpreted within social, economic and physical environments. Women have also been active in constructing both their own possibilities for health and care and the health care system. This course will explore the research on differences and their consequences for the health of both women and men. Feminist political economy focused on Canada will guide this exploration, but other perspectives and other countries will also be considered.

HLTH 5470 3.0 Intra-Hospital Information Systems (Elective Course)
This course is designed to allow students to have an in depth knowledge of intra-hospital health related information systems, to understand the complexity of their design, the impact they have on health care information management, as well as their integration challenges. The course investigates the challenges related to streamlining information communication inside a hospital as well as the integration of intra-hospital information systems. Students will learn how to analyze new opportunities that intra-hospital information systems provide to hospitals as well as to analyze the integration requirements of these systems.

HLTH 5475 3.0 Telemedicine Systems (Elective Course)
The objective of this course is to provide the students with skills that will enable them to be active players in health related organizations where they can analyze the technological and the functional requirements of a telemedicine application. Besides students will be able to design a telemedicine system, and draw a performance evaluation plan. The course will give the students the chance to carry out a critical analysis and assessment of existing research papers in the telemedicine field; it will also convey to the students the knowledge and the necessary skills to understand the complexity of telemedicine applications.

HLTH 5480 3.0 Public Health Policy: Canada and the Global Context (Elective Course)
Exposes students to both the domestic and the international legal/policy environment within which public health policy is developed and implemented.  It will illustrate the important relationship between domestic public health policy development and implementation and the international context.  The course will explore what constitutes public health policy domestically and what constitutes public health policy in selected other jurisdictions.  The course is initiated with an in depth review of the Canadian public health legal context showing sources of public health policy as expressed in legal instruments (statutes, regulations, policy guidance, memoranda of understanding, technical standards) at provincial and federal levels.  This will include the Canadian historical context and demonstrate the changing nature of what has come to be accepted as public health policy over time through an examination of how it has been expressed and implemented. The course will then examine what other modalities have been employed domestically to express public health policy and to implement public health policy objectives at the federal, provincial/territorial and municipal levels.  There is also an opportunity at this point to consider aboriginal expressions of public health policy. The course will then embark upon an examination of the larger international context for implementation of common international public health risks.

Elective Courses (continued) for the Graduate Program in Health

(Note: Not all of these courses are offered in every academic year).

HLTH 6245 3.0 Perspectives on Knowledge Transfer, Evidence and Decision Making in Organizations (Elective Course)
The study of the use of information, knowledge, and evidence in decision-making has long been an important part of organizational theory. Organizational scholars have focused on studies of decision-making because decision-making defines both the processes and the outcomes of organizations.  Decisions shape the services and products of organizations and the experiences of those who work there.  In healthcare, the growing focus on the development and application of evidence-based decision making has stimulated interest in adopting similar guidelines for decision-making in managerial practice in healthcare.  This course will explore perspectives on decision making in the organizational literature and the move to evidence based Decision making in healthcare.  Perspectives from other related disciplines will also be explored.  This course will also explore models of knowledge transfer and exchange involving interactions between decision makers and researchers.  This section of the course will focus on thinking about how mutual learning can be achieved through the process of planning, disseminating, and applying existing or new research in decision-making. Knowledge exchange is necessary to achieve a better understanding of each other's work, new partnerships, and the use of research-based evidence in health management and policy decision-making. More and better transfer of knowledge embedded in research is urgently needed to support improved performance in multiple areas of the health system.  The conceptual and methodological dimensions of knowledge exchange will be discussed. Selected current best practices in Canada and other countries will be used for case study analyses. There will be a combined focus on the challenges associated with the individual role as knowledge broker as well as organizational capacity building. Specific seminar topics will include: knowledge as evidence; using electronic communication to enable innovative liaisons; developing networks and communities of practice; and creating partnerships between policy, academia and practice.

HLST 6250 3.0 Strategic Change Management in Healthcare Organizations (Elective Course)
This course provides an objective basis for decision making. The goal of this course is to familiarize students with conceptual frameworks, debates, and developments in contemporary strategic thinking in the context of change management. Emphasis will be placed on the exploration of various theoretical perspectives, ideas, issues and on the sharing of knowledge through classroom discussion.
Learning Objectives are:

  • To provide students with useful conceptual tools to guide analysis and decision making
  • To enhance awareness and increased understanding of critical strategic issues facing various types of healthcare organizations
  • To develop critical thinking skills via the application of concepts and theories to case studies
  • To stimulate students to explore and evaluate new and developing areas of strategic management theory

HLTH 6260 3.0 Health Information Management and Systems (Elective Course)
One of the major aims of Health Information Management is to help health professionals make better decisions. To this end, diverse models and methods of decision making and decision support have been developed and implemented in health care settings. This course reviews theories, methods, and technologies for aiding the process of making decisions in health care. This course represents a comprehensive approach of information management, record management, policy and planning. Provides students with the knowledge and skills to manage health information services in health organizations, to use computer technologies to collect, manage analyze and technically evaluate health information and work with confidential health records.  Topics Include:

  • The evolution of healthcare information
  • The role of information Systems
  • Decision making and Decision support in Healthcare
  • Decision Support Systems and their impact on the future Health Decision Making
  • Integrating data into Management Information Systems
  • Informatics in Healthcare: Managing Organizational Change
  • Electronic Health Record

This course examines also the forces outside healthcare facilities that directly affect the collection, maintenance and dissemination of health information. Topics include international trends in healthcare, federal and state government regulations, national trends in healthcare delivery and technology.

HLTH 6290 3.0 Genetics and Public Policy, Ethics, and Law (Elective Course)
Explores the political, societal, ethical and philosophical issues concerning society’s emerging understanding of genetics, its biotechnologic applications and the implications for health policy, regulation and legislation, covering a range of areas.  These include the history of biotechnology, reproductive issues (prenatal and pre-implantation genetic testing) and their ethical, societal and economic implications.  Other areas of exploration include gene therapy, epigenetics, cloning, genetically modified foods, biotechnology and patents (e.g. the Myriad patent on cancer gene testing), and societal legislative and policy responses.  The implications of new technologies for the environment and public health care will be considered, including coverage decisions, the federal/provincial government regulatory role, and private insurance.

HLTH 6300 6.0 Political Economy of Global Health (Elective Course)
The course examines globalization's influences on health by drawing on scientific evidence related to social determinants within the literature of political economy and related disciplines. It features teaching and research collaboration between York University and the University of Cape Town, South Africa. (Pre-requisite:  Background in globalization, international development, comparative health systems or discretion of the course instructor.)

Recommended elective courses outside of the Graduate Program in Health

(Note: Not all of these courses are offered in every academic year).

CDIS 5025 3.0 History of Health Care Ethics from Ancient Times to the Present (Elective Course Outside Program)
This course analyzes the diversity and controversies surrounding health care ethics over more than two thousand years of debates and experiences by practitioners and lay-people. Makes connections between past practices and present developments upon which to guide future decision-makers.  (Integrated with:  HLST 4020 3.0)

CDIS 5060 3.0 Disability in the Age of Information Technology (Elective Course Outside Program)
This course will examine the implications of information technology for the lives, work and identities of persons with disabilities. The course will focus on topics including discourse, ideology and representation of information technology in society, accessibility, embodiment and computer technology, and ethics of technological change. The course will address recent examples of technology and globalization, and the introduction and implementation of technology in relationship to persons with disability, focusing on issues of the adaptation of technology and on participation in the development of new technology.

CDIS 5065 3.0 Health Systems, Issues and Inequities in Comparative Perspective (Elective Course Outside Program)
This course uses a comparative political economy perspective to understand change in Canadian and global health policy issues. Students will first be introduced to health policy issues by comparing Canada’s system with others. Subsequent sessions will investigate health issues including the role of international organizations, globalization and privatization, caregiving, environmental health and genetics, health reform, health care and “place”, social determinants of health, role of nonprofits, and the impact of transmissable diseases. Emphasis will be placed on analyzing these issues as they impact class, race/ethnicity and gender.   (Integrated with:  HLST 4110 3.0)

CDIS 6130 3.0  International Development in Disability and Human Rights (Elective Course Outside Program)
This course examines international development, human rights and disability rights. Different cultural interpretations and experiences of the definition of disability will be considered, including a comparative examination of specific disability policies, or the absence thereof, in different parts of the developing world. Topics also include local and regional disability advocacy work; the impact of civil and imperialist conflict on people with disabilities; refugees and disability support; and the role of non-governmental organizations and the influence of international organizations such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund on disability rights in the developing world.

CDIS 6140 3.0  Health and Disability (Elective Course Outside Program)
This course considers the theoretical distinctions between two dominant discourses: disability as an individual pathology and as a social pathology.  Students will review biomedical and functional accounts of disability in comparison to social perspectives.  The course will investigate the social construction of disability and illness, and the relationship between the two.  Students will further investigate how systems of inequality produce illness and disablement.  The conflation of disability with ill health is rooted in a narrow definition of health based on the presence of disease or infirmity, the use of medical practitioners as gatekeepers to disability benefits and an inability to acknowledge the multiple ways in which disabilities are often created by societal norms that inflexibly accommodate multiple needs.  Students will develop an understanding of disability as a form of social disadvantage that is nested within larger systems of inequality.

HIMP 6130 3.0 Strategic Management of Hospitals (Elective Course Outside Program)
Thiscourse examines strategic management in hospital enterprises, large and small, from the perspective of a health administrator. The course applies strategic management concepts in complex management settings - very qualified people, complicated multi-disciplinary situations, changing technologies and methods of health delivery (telemedicine, e-health vs. in situ hospitals and clinics), complex public policy issues relating to scale, critical mass, and expensive technologies vs. small, clinical doctor-patient relationships.

KAHS 6030 3.0 Qualitative Research Methods (Elective Course Outside Program)
This course provides a basic and critical survey of qualitative research methodology. It explores various qualitative strategies of inquiry and the implications of different stages of inquiry including data collection, analysis, representation and assessment. This course is designed to familiarize students with qualitative research approaches and methodologies used in health- and sport-related research, and to teach skills for developing, implementing, analyzing and articulating/disseminating research projects based on qualitative data.  Various strategies (traditions) of qualitative inquiry will be explored including, but not limited to, interviewing, social artifact (documentary) research, phenomenology, grounded theory, and ethnography.  The implications and consequences of different stages of inquiry including data collection, analysis, representation and assessment will also be explored.

PHIL 6215 3.0 Theory and Practice in Bioethics: Physician-Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia (Elective Course Outside Program)
Our focus here will be on contemporary philosophical analyses of the ethics of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide. If we have a right to life, should a mentally capable adult be able to revoke it? Should she be able to have a person of her choice kill her, or provide her with the means of taking her own life? If not, then why not? If so, then under what circumstances and for what ethically defensible reasons? We begin with a conceptual analysis of the key terms in the debate. We then consider the ethical implications of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide for a) those thought to be especially at risk of abuse (e.g., the elderly, the disabled) and for b) those who practice medicine. Finally, we consider the influence of ethical reasoning on the law when we examine the arguments for and against the legalization of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide.

POLS 6175 3.0 Politics and Policies in Aging Societies (Elective Course Outside Program)
The aging of the population is a powerful and ubiquitous structural development occurring in Canada and also many other nations. This course critically analyzes, drawing on several literatures and traditions, how population aging impacts the politics and policies related to retirement, employment and health care. Some international comparative analysis will be undertaken especially of the United States, Europe and East Asia. The central theme of the course is that demographic conditions must be considered in seeking to understand and account for developments in the welfare state. A secondary theme is that the aging of the population impacts not only policies for the elderly, but also policies for younger citizens and ‘working-age’ citizens.   This course focuses on how demographic conditions shape debates, policies, and public programs of three components of the welfare state: i) income security for those not employed (for the elderly, especially public pensions; but, also for younger workers), ii) the regulation of employment (retirement and early exit, age discrimination and related), and iii) health care provision and funding.  Although the required readings for this course primarily focus on Canada, students will be encouraged to incorporate a comparative dimension in their own research and writing.  Students may also expand their own research to include topics such as long-term care, housing, or transportation policies.

POLS 6245 3.0 Global Politics of Health (Elective Course Outside Program)
‘Health’ has emerged as an issue of global politics, cutting across disciplinary and national boundaries.  It has become directly relevant to the study of international organizations, ‘globalisation’, domestic politics and social restructuring, global governance regimes, and even questions of human security.  As such, health can be explored in a manner that elucidates many critical facets of global politics, as well as the intersection between global and national political terrains.  This course will challenge students to consider health from a variety of angles and intellectual perspectives, encouraging a distinctly political understanding of health and problems of political governance (along both global and national lines). It begins by examining the extent to which health questions can be fruitfully explored through various theoretical and categorical lenses (eg. class, race, gender, the ‘biopolitical’).  Following this, we will devote several weeks specifically to health as an issue of global political economy.  The aim will be to consider the linkages between the health industry, global trade and restructuring, and health sector reform and restructuring in both the advanced industrial and developing worlds. Building on this politico-economic understanding of health trends, the backend of the course will interrogate some of the specific question emerging around the politics of ‘global health’ – its meaning, utility, institutional mechanisms and even biases.

SOCI 6831 3.0 Health and Illness (Elective Course Outside Program)
This course is designed to consider current debates about health and care within a feminist political economy framework.  The focus will be Canada but a Canada located within an international context.  Of course students will be invited to introduce other perspectives and other countries into the readings, discussions and their papers.

WMST 6221 3.0 Sexualities in International Development (Elective Course Outside Program)
Through consideration of critical feminist, anti-racist and queer scholarship in various disciplines, this course considers the "work" of sex in international development, examining how development interventions and other nation-building projects have informed the articulation and regulation of sexualities.